Allemande (French allemande — German) is an old French dance of the 17—18th centuries (of the German origin); usually of binary form; being the first movement in the suite.
The etude is marked by sharp grotesque humour, created by the broad awkward legato intonations and swift staccato motion; by unexpected rests and sudden dynamic contrasts. These peculiarities define the following performing problems: to achieve the highest contrast between the touches staccato and legato, ff and pp resounding, between the scale-wise melodic turns and the broad unexpective intervallic leaps.

(Spanish alborada, alba — sunrise) — a morning serenade, the Spanish shepherds' song glorifying the sun-rise.
This etude's character is festive and exultating. This is the image of the Spanish carnival. Its general executing objectives are stipulated by the light major colour, but one should here reveal by technique different music images: the first one is dance-like with prevailing of impetuous legato motion and the varying, mostly sharp staccato; and the second one is brightly fanfare, played with the accented marcato touch.

(French anglaise — English) — the English dance, close to the ecossaise by its music and to the rigadoon by its form. F. Fischer, J. S. Bach, F. A. Phiiidor included the dances, similar to the Anglaise, to the instrumental suites.
This etude is a parody, depicting the following amusing scene. Exquisite noble ladies try to accustom clumsy country-men to the art of dance. Considering this aim, one should pay special attention to timbre contrasts. Female graceful dance needs soft songful sound vibrato, while the awkward heavy motions of the guys are imitated by the fashionable firm sound поп vibrato with harsh accents and intervallic leaps.

(Italian barcarola, barca — boat) — the song of the Italian fishermen and boatmen. This is the kind of music, popular in Venice. The name of the songful vocal and instrumental pieces.
This etude's main artistic and imaginative aim comes to the creation of stereophonic sound effect, depicting the Venician gondolier's song, appearing somewhere very far, slowly approaching and then fading again. Unlike the previous etudes, constructed by the means of contrasting technique methods, here its necessary to strive for the gradual, very careful crescendo frovappp to real/and the following diminuendo to ppp. However it's important to achieve not only the sound's dynamic growth and abating, but also the timbre ones — from the hidden, hardly heard sound con sord to the bright mild sound and vice versa.

Bergamasque (Italian bergamasca) — the Italian dance-song of the 16—17th centuries (originates from the province Beigamo, the Northern Italy), time 4/4, animated tempo, square structure. Bergamasque was used by different composers of the 16—18th centuries for instrumental genres.
This etude's difficulty for the execution is in its impetuosity, a kind of wind-like motion and connected with it light and graceful sound invention, close by its character to the flute sound. In the middle part one should aspire the utmost imagery contrasts between the syncopated staccatissimo (as if some women elegant dance on the tips of the toes) and sudden male "stamps" and "cries", producing the features, inherent to the tempred Italian dance.

Bolero — the Spanish folk dance, known from the end of the 18th century, accompanied by the castanets' strokes.
The brilliant Bolero by M.Ravel served as the prototype for this etude. Here the hornist is given the possibility to expose the real executive virtuosity, the kind of timbre eccentricity. On the ground of the ostinato rhythmical design (the Ravel's drum imitation), played con sord., there sounds the main melody, whimsically developing more and more impressive and vigorous. Concerning this, there occur some technical problems. The main one consists of the right hand's technique mastering, the skill of instant instrumental sound's changing — from the stopped notes {con sord.) to the unstopped notes {senza sord.). To make the problem easier it's recommended to play this etude, while sitting. The second problem is to achieve the ideal single sound dynamics, while lasting (French filer un son). This is necessary to strengthen the illusion of the melody sounding during the periods, when the drum rhythm is heard. And the last executant's problem is the necessity to keep on absolutely steady and precise metro-rhythmical pulse (besides the last three bars) while the gradual, but even crescendo from ppp to

Bransle (French branle — shaking, round dance) — the old French dance, firstly the folk one, later the ball one. In the 16—17th centuries there appeared its variants.
Though this etude is more easy by its technique, the principle of the imagery contrast is returned again. Its first theme reminds A.Vivaldi's famous string compositions, played with the "whole bow" (detache) — vigourously and joyfully. It's changed by the lyrical, but rather courageous and wide by its gamut theme, sounding contrastly by its dynamics. In the end these themes seem to call to one another like in a dialogue. The main performing problem here is to achieve the sound evenly sated, the ideal legato in the middle and the low instrumental registers.

Burlesque (Italian burlesca, burla — joke) — musical piece of humorous and comic character.
In this case the etude's capriciousness is defined exceptionally by its asymmetrical, "lame" metrics, sudden for the listener accents changing. Its beginning doesn't portend any unexpectednesses: quite traditional horn music by the rhythm and the intonations, depicting hunt. But quite of a sudden — and this "suddenly" should be executed imperceptibly — something is broken in the usual motion of the time 6/8 and the kind of rhythmical phantasmagoria begins, which stops as unexpectedly as it began, returning again to the "comfortable" for the ear channel of the rhythmical pulse. Thus, the problem of this etude studying is reduced to the achievement of absolute precision and then — to natural and fluent performance of changing, asymmetrical metrical schemes.

Bourree (French bourree, bourrer — to do unexpected leaps) — old French folk dance, known from the end of the 16th century.
The executing problems in this etude are easier, than in the previous ones. The instrument should "sing" with dense and timbre-enriched sound according to the style of baroque music. Meanwhile the mordents signed in the text should be played expressively and gracefully.

Waltz (German waltzen — to whirl) — a dance, originating from the German, Czech, Austrian folk dances. In the 19th century waltz was very much spread everywhere as the dance and concert genre. It was even introduced to the symphonies as one of the movements.
This etude is willing to be performed according to the style of E. Waldteufel's waltzes, arranged for the wind orchestra. Its first theme imitates the baritone solo timbre, then there follows the orchestral tutti with prevailing masterly passages of the wood winds. This etude requires of the performer to reproduce technically and artistically the image of the popular orchestral music by the horn solo.

Verbunkos (Hungarian verbunkos, from German Werbung — recruiting). The Hungarian dance, appeared in the second part of the 18th century, being played while recruiting.
Here it's necessary to reveal the main modal and rhythmical peculiarities of the Hungarian and Gypsy folk music: the scale with two augmented seconds, the dotted rhythmics with the shortened strong beats, the alternation of the emotional slow and masterly quick music. This etude's especially horn problem is to achieve sonorous and even sounding in its outer movements playing in the border range of the small and one-line octaves, not very convenient for the performer.

— country song, popular in the 15—16th centuries in Italy. This etude's composition has a clearly imaginative character. Its first part depicts the idyllic-pastorale picture of the country evening. One may hear singing, far horn sounds, reflected by the echo. The second part is a round dance-song, developing more and more impetuously and spiritedly. Hence there is one technique problem here: to rate and to execute the gradual dynamical and tempo increase, necessary to be directed to tempo presto and ff sound.

Villotta — Italian song-dance genre of the 15—16th centuries, having folk origins.
In this etude the hornist should demonstrate his outstanding sense of humour and even the skill of actor: a considerably drunken Italian is returning from the tavern. He still continues crooning and tripping, but more often he stumbles, muttering some utter nonsense and doing out of tune indeed. Following this image one should and must perform, exaggerating and deforming everything, like in a cartoon. This means the accents marking, rhythmical disturbances and rests, ridiculous intonations, i. e. playing almost
ad libitum.

Villancico — the song genre, spread in the Spanish music of the Renaissance.
The outer movements of this etude depict the sultry Andalusian night. This may be possible if the horn sounds softly, creating ideal cantilena and lustreless tint. The middle movement reproduces the seized by love caballero, singing the serenade under his worshipped senorita's balcony. Hence the sound's character is abruptly changed here, expressing resoluteness, manliness and passion.

Volta (Italian volta, from voltare — to turn) — old dance in pairs, the type of galliard. Swift tempo, triple-time. Volta was popular in France and England in the 16-4 7th centuries. This etude has the style of the French court dance, close to Minuet by its character. Thus, so as the dance consists of the alternating graceful poses and supple movements, the music should expose different changes of the main theme. Special attention ought to be paid to the penultimate variation, performing it utmostly sharply, but slightly, as if pizzicato.

— old French dance of folk origin. From the 17th century became of great use at the court. From the 18th century it's met in the instrumental suites.
The beginning of the etude should be played sharply and elegantly as if by fagotto. Actually the whole gavotte with its episodes' succession resemble something like a miniature doll-like ballet. Hence, the performer should be inventive, finding unexpected imaginative colours, exposing his especially musical sense of humour.

(French galoper — to skip) — very quick dance, the time is 2/4; based on skipping. Gallopade appeared in the twenties of the 19th century. Later was included to the quadrille as its final, the most quick movement.
This very gallop should resemble the buffoonery. Actually this is the dashing music of circus. Nevertheless there are some technical problems. Rhythmical schemes alternate rarely. Sharp dotted rhythm, predominating from the beginning, is changed for bass motions imitation, which in its turn leads to wide the part with impetuous galloping, requiring of the performer the technique, called "double staccato1'. Then there follows this etude's culmination, marked by the kaleidoscope "sparkling" of the previous rhythms and melodical phrases with contrasting dynamics.

Galliard (Italian gagliarda — vigorous, courageous) — old Italian dance with jumping of moderately quick motion, 3/4 time. In the 16th century the galliard was played after the pavane. Together they formed the dance-suite of two movements.
This music's character differs from the usual one. The first theme sounds broadly and magestically, the second one is to be played ff as some solemn orchestral tutti — the picture of some festive ceremony. The sound should be unchanged along the whole etude. The horn sounds softly, thickly, without forcing, the stroke is the same — marcato, sounding almost as legato.

Grossvater (German Grossvater — Grandfather) — the burlesque German dance, spread in the 17—19th centuries as the wedding-dance, performed by all those present at the wedding. Grossvater consisted of the slow (3 beated) and quick (2 beated) movements. This genre is used in the piano cycles "The Butterflies", "The Carnival" by Schumann, in the ballet "The Nut-cracker" by Tchaikovsky.
This etude, being not a very virtuous one, reproduces the emotions of Christmas celebration, the mood of joy.
The first bars are the invitation to dance around the Christmas tree. Then the placid gay round dance is depicted, where the children and the grown-up participate together. One should achieve the major and light increasing here. Glissando is played absolutely jauntily and easily as some naughty cries.

Jig — old English dance of folk origin, very quick, based on the 3 beat (the type of triplet), predominantly unremitting motion in the bars with the time 3/8, 3/4, 6/8, 6/14, 9/8, 9/4, 12/8, 12/4 etc. The 4 movements dance suite of the 17—18th centuries included the jig as the fourth (the last) movement, following after the sarabande.
This etude should leave the impression of gloom grotesque and queerness. It's enough difficult, uniting the agile legato technique with capriciously changing accents and short notes staccato technique, where there are allowed the methods of the ordinary and double staccato. It's willing indeed to mark all the syncopated rhythmical moments' while performing.

Cavatina (Italian cavatina) — the name of the opera aria genre type, usually lyrical and songful. Sometimes the melodious instrumental piece is called this way.
The final etude in this book expresses altogether enlightened and tragical feelings, connected with the memory of Mikhail Nikolayevich and Vitaliy Mikhailovich Buyanovsky.
This etude is written in the style of the baroque melodiously-recitative opera arias — the so-called Lamento arias. This is a mournful monologue, some chamber requiem. It's necessary for the performer here to have a command of the whole horn gamut and the possibility to express by the broad soft sound all the deepest and mostly subtle feelings. At the same time the technique should be based on the resonable sense of proportionality between the academically precise metro-rhythmical peculiarities of this music and free by tempo and dynamics, with the character approaching rubato interpretation.

Vladimir Mititello. The etudes-characters for horn. Compozitor Publishing House, Sankt-Peterburg, 2000, p. 4-8. Translated by Asya Ardova